Booting from SD/ru

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Opinion is divided on whether it is better to use ext2 or ext3 for the root filesystem. Ext3 in general is a superior choice, because it is a journalled filesystem and so does not require a long 'fsck' (file system check) after an unclean shutdown. However, if used on a flash device that does not support wear-leveling then ext3 may cause premature wear on the blocks of the card where the journal is stored. SD cards are supposed to support wear leveling, but this can not be guaranteed for all vendors.
 
Opinion is divided on whether it is better to use ext2 or ext3 for the root filesystem. Ext3 in general is a superior choice, because it is a journalled filesystem and so does not require a long 'fsck' (file system check) after an unclean shutdown. However, if used on a flash device that does not support wear-leveling then ext3 may cause premature wear on the blocks of the card where the journal is stored. SD cards are supposed to support wear leveling, but this can not be guaranteed for all vendors.
  
== Acquiring a tarfile rootfs ==
+
== Получение tar-архива корневой файловой системы ==
 
+
There are two ways of acquiring an rootfs image as a tar archive. You can either build it on your own using the OpenEmbedded Distribution. Or download it from the openmoko buildhost.
+
  
 +
Существует два пути получения образа корневой ФС в tar-архиве. Вы можете создать его сами с помощью OpenEmbedded дистрибутива. Или загрузить его с openmoko buildhost.
  
 
=== Вариант 1: Скачать rootfs/kernel tar с Openmoko ===
 
=== Вариант 1: Скачать rootfs/kernel tar с Openmoko ===

Revision as of 14:31, 19 December 2008

Эта страница рассказывает как загружаться FreeRunner с карты (micro-)SD вместо встроенной NAND флеш памяти. Карта SD разделяет шину с GPU, поэтому, возможно, не будет работать также хорошо, но имеется такая возможность.

WARNING: Загрузка с SDHC может иметь некоторые проблемы (смотри ниже).


Contents

Загрузка с SDHC / проблемы с suspend

Вначале предупреждение. Очень старый баг, который сущестрвует в ядре Linux, наличие тенденции к съедению таблицы разделов на картах SD большой емкости, когда система приостанавливает работу. Это карточка #1802. Посмотрите эту нить для прояснения ситуации с удалением таблицы разделов и, возможно, других проблем, связанных с использованием карт SD большой емкости. В качестве безопасности запишите параметры таблицы карты на бумагу чтобы в случае повреждения пересоздать как было(данные не портятся).

Как это работает

В Neo, u-boot выполняет роль загрузчика 'grub' как на PC. U-boot загружает образ ядра в память и передает параметры ядру. Параметры показывают где расположены остальные части системы и другие параметры ядра.

As the kernel boots, it initializes the hardware and then mounts the root filesystem. The kernel then runs "/sbin/init", which handles the rest of the boot-up sequence (such as displaying the splash screen and progress bar).

This sequence is the same whether the device is booting from built-in Flash or from the SD card. The differences are how the kernel is loaded, and which device is mounted as the root filesystem.

The following sections provide additional details.

Вход в меню

U-boot меню определены переменными с именами "menu_X" (где X является числом). Значение переменных -строка "<метка>:<команды>", где <метка> это текст который показан на экране, а <команды> из списка команд u-boot (разделены символом ';' ) для выполнения когда данное меню будет выделено. When entering a string of commands, the ';' and '$' characters must be backslash-escaped ("\;" and "\$").

Загрузка ядра

A pair of u-boot commands must be used to load the kernel from SD. First is "mmcinit", which will cause u-boot to detect the card. Next is a command to load a file into memory - either "fatload" or "ext2load" depending on whether the kernel is on a FAT filesytem or an ext2/ext3 filesystem.

The command syntax is:

fatload mmc 1:<p> 0x32000000 <filepath>
ext2load mmc 1:<p> 0x32000000 <filepath>

where <p> is the partition number, and <filepath> is the path to the file that is to be loaded.

NOTE: The "ext2load" command is broken on u-boot binary earlier than "20080723", including the one shipped with the first batch of FreeRunners, are affected by bug #799. If you update your U-Boot and kernel packages you can use direct ext2 / 3 boot all in one partition.


WARNING: Be careful when updating u-boot on a Neo1973 as there is a risk of bricking the device (unless you have a debug board). This is not an issue for the FreeRunner as it has a protected copy of u-boot in the NOR flash


NOTE: U-Boot supports SDHC protocol on the FreeRunner only: on the Neo1973, u-boot is unable to access SDHC cards (4G or larger). The kernel does have SDHC support on Neo1973, so it is possible to have the root filesystem on SDHC and the kernel on NAND flash to work around it.


Параметры корневой файловой системы

The contents of the "bootargs" environment variable are passed to the kernel. Bootargs is a space-delimited list of "name=value" definitions. The items relevant to SD-booting are "root", "rootfstype", and "rootdelay".

For example, the following parameters would tell the kernel to mount the third partition of the SD-card as an ext3 filesystem:

 root=/dev/mmcblk0p3 rootfstype=ext3 rootdelay=5 

The "rootdelay" parameter allows time for the card to be properly initialized before it is accessed.

Note that the kernel must have built-in support (i.e. not a module) for the filesystem specified in "rootfstype". The default Openmoko kernel configs as of 2008-07-17 have built-in support for both ext2 and ext3. You can check the available filesystems with the Linux command

less /proc/filesystems

It is not possible to use VFAT for the root filesystem.

ext2 в сравнении ext3

Opinion is divided on whether it is better to use ext2 or ext3 for the root filesystem. Ext3 in general is a superior choice, because it is a journalled filesystem and so does not require a long 'fsck' (file system check) after an unclean shutdown. However, if used on a flash device that does not support wear-leveling then ext3 may cause premature wear on the blocks of the card where the journal is stored. SD cards are supposed to support wear leveling, but this can not be guaranteed for all vendors.

Получение tar-архива корневой файловой системы

Существует два пути получения образа корневой ФС в tar-архиве. Вы можете создать его сами с помощью OpenEmbedded дистрибутива. Или загрузить его с openmoko buildhost.

Вариант 1: Скачать rootfs/kernel tar с Openmoko

Выберите rootfs/kernel комбинацию из Последних Образов.

Вариант 2: Создание tarfile дистрибутива с помощью OpenEmbedded

Другая возможность получить tar архив вашей корневой файловой системы состоит в том, чтобы создать его самостоятельно с помощью среды OpenEmbedded.

В случае с OM-2007.2 вам потребуется добавить "tar" к типам образов в local.conf:

IMAGE_FSTYPES = "jffs2 tar"

После чего создать новый образ так:

bitbake openmoko-devel-image

или, если используется MokoMakefile:

make openmoko-devel-image

Когда процесс завершен, будет создан файл Openmoko-....tar, который и будет вашим только что созданным архивом корневой файловой системы.

Вариант 3 : Преобразование образа jff2 в tar архив

Посмотрите Userspace root image для более детального описания того, как получить доступ к содержимому образа jffs2.

Подготовка SD карты

Разделы на SD карте

u-boot pre-2008-07-23 может грузить систему только с файловой системой FAT; если вы обновили u-boot, вы можеет грузиться с FAT или ext2. Этот пример показывает примерное использование утилиты fdisk для создания разделов на карте. Feel free to use the partitioning utility of your liking for this task.

fdisk /dev/mmcblk0

Примечание: The device file might differ on your system. If you are not sure about it, you may check your kernel message log by calling dmesg to find the correct device.

мы создадим раздел 8 мегабайт для ядра и остальнео пространство для всего остального.

  Command (m for help): d
  Selected partition 1
  Command (m for help): n
  Command action
     e   extended
     p   primary partition (1-4)
  p
  Partition number (1-4): 1
  First cylinder (1-983, default 1):
  Using default value 1
  Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-983, default 983): +8M
  Command (m for help): n
  Command action
     e   extended
     p   primary partition (1-4)
  p
  Partition number (1-4): 2
  First cylinder (18-983, default 18):
  Using default value 18
  Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (18-983, default 983):
  Using default value 983
  Command (m for help): w
  The partition table has been altered!
  Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
  Syncing disks.

Should probably need to change type of first partition to FAT 16 too ?

if it exits with something like

  Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table
  fdisk: WARNING: rereading partition table failed, kernel still uses old table:   Device or resource busy

do

  umount /dev/mmcblk0p1

on another shell and try again.

Форматирование SD карты

Создаем на первом разделе FAT файловую систему:

mkfs.vfat /dev/mmcblk0p1
NOTE: if you do not have mkfs.vfat you must find and install the "dosfstools" package. This package does not seem to be in the official feeds, but an unofficial build may be downloaded from http://members.shaw.ca/mmontour/neo/dosfstools_2.11-r0_armv4t.ipk



Вторую часть карты делаем как ext3 (для работы с ext2 надо создать ядро с корректной конфигурацией):

mkfs.ext3 /dev/mmcblk0p2

Перенос на карту SD

Ваша карточка готова к загрузки на нее ядра и файловой системы.

Mount the second partition of your SD card somewhere and put the image on it:

mount /dev/mmcblk0p2 /mnt/moko
tar -C /mnt/moko/ -xzvf openmoko-devel-image-fic-gta01-20070313022035.rootfs.tar.gz

Note: As always in this guide the device name as well as the rootfs name needs to be adjusted to your device and filename structure

Note: There's a nice gotcha to take care about if you use your host OS automount. Some hosts mount these removable devices with "nodev" option by default for security. If the image you are unpacking has a populated /dev directory, the nodes will fail to create as devices then. If automounting the SD on your host, confirm there are no unexpected mount options by using "mount" command alone to list the mounts.

The next step is to mount the first partition of the sd card and install the kernel on it.

mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt/mokokernel
cp uImage-fic-gta01-latest.bin /mnt/mokokernel/uImage.bin

Make sure your kernel is called uImage.bin. If the u-boot doesn't find the kernel image during boot, log into the bootloader with cu, mount the partition with mmcinit and check the presence and the name of the kernel image with fatls mmc 1:1 for FAT filesystem or ext2ls mmc 1:1 for ext2 filesystem.

Unmount both the rootfs partition and the kernel partition and make sure all remaining buffers are written to it:

umount /mnt/moko
umount /mnt/mokokernel
sync

Add uboot boot entry

Depending on the revision of the phone and the partition type (ext2/ext3) you are using, it might be necessary to add an entry to the bootmenu to be able to boot the system off your SD card. If you are using a FreeRunner and have created an FAT kernel/ext2 rootfs partition you should be able to boot from the card right out of the box, because a boot menu entry for this should already exist in the NOR/NAND boot menu. In any other case you should at least make sure the needed entry exists in your menu before proceeding. You will need to enter the uboot shell of the NAND boot menu for this. A description on how to connect to the uboot loader shell can be found in this article: Uboot#Bootloader_prompt. Details on howto get into the NAND boot menu can be found here.

After you read these two references you should be connected to your NAND uboot shell right now. The first thing to do is to set the boot menu timeout to a really high value. Unfortunately if you don't do this, the boot loader will continue booting after the default timeout (60 seconds) even if you are connected to the uboot shell. Just enter the following command to the menu prompt:

setenv boot_menu_timeout 99999

This will set the timeout to 99999 seconds which should definitely enough time for us finish whatever work we want accomplish in the boot loader shell.

Now we will make sure a appropriate menu item for booting from sd exists, or create it otherwise. You can print the defined boot loader environment by issuing the command:

printenv

If it shows a line beginning with menu_ followed by the commands which are just to follow in this guide, you do not need to create a new menu entry. In any other case please proceed with the following.

Please make sure you are using the correct configuration based on the decisions you made earlier. For more information on the uboot prompt, see

help 
help <command>

and Bootloader and Bootloader commands.

NOTE: The backslashes (\) are important for uboot to set the command as new environment variable (menu_9) instead of just executing them as soon as enter is pressed.


NOTE: Copy and paste may not work depending on your terminal emulator. Commi just works or you can use neocon terminal emulator and add a per-character delay. Otherwise, you will have to type in the commandline manually.


It is important to distinguish between FAT or ext2 kernel partitions and ext2 or ext3 root partitions at this point.

Please watch partition numbers in the following commands. In particular, you may need to change root=/dev/mmcblk0p# and fatload mmc # or ext2load mmc # depending on which partition number your root and kernel, respectively, are located. Number starts from unity.

Boot entry for FAT kernel+ext3 rootfs partitions:

setenv menu_9 Boot from microSD (FAT+ext3): setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext3 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} ro\; mmcinit\; fatload mmc 1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

Boot entry for FAT kernel+ext2 rootfs partitions:

setenv menu_9 Boot from microSD (FAT+ext2): setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext2 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} ro\; mmcinit\; fatload mmc 1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

or : with additional 'init=/sbin/init' kernel parameter (may be needed for some images) :

setenv menu_9 Boot 200808 from microSD (FAT+ext2): setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext2 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} init=/sbin/init ro\; mmcinit\; fatload mmc 1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

Boot entry for ext2 kernel+ext2 rootfs partitions: (requires newer u-boot)

setenv menu_2 Boot from microSD part2 (ext2+ext2): setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext2 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} ro\; mmcinit\; ext2load mmc 1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

Boot entry for kernel and rootfs on same ext2 partition (tested with Qtopia/requires newer u-boot)

setenv menu_3 QTopia: setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext2 root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} ro\; mmcinit\; ext2load mmc 1:1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

You are nearly done. Just issue a

printenv

and verify that your newly created entry is correctly displayed (This time the backslashes are not displayed anyone).

If everything looks fine enter

saveenv

into the prompt and press enter. The new configuration should now be saved to the NAND.

Shutdown your neo with the following command:

neo1973 power-off

After you restarted the Neo and got back to the NAND boot menu you should be able to select your newly created menu entry and successfully boot into the rootfs from your SD card.


See also Moving current system from flash to SD which shows how to move the running system currently running in flash to an SD card, in order to keep a backup system on SD on which to boot from.


Приложение

Загрузка с SDHC

NOTE: the following text was written for the Neo1973. SDHC and SD should both work in a FreeRunner if you have u-boot from 2008-07-23 or later.


As SDHC is not supported in older u-boot versions you can't use the Booting from SD guide. But there's a kind of workaround that is a good option to have at least your rootfs on the microSDHC:

First you can follow Step 1 to get an kernel-image with mmc- and ext2-support. But instead of copying the image to the rootfs you will have to flash it to the Neo's internal NAND-Flash (using Dfu-util). Now you can continue with Step 2 (like mentioned before you do not have to copy your uImage to the rootfs) and follow the instructions to Step 3. Instead of the setenv commands in Step 3 you have to enter the following:

GTA01Bv4 # setenv menu_5 Boot from SDHC: setenv  bootargs root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 console=tty0 rootdelay=5 neo1973-nand:0x00040000(u-boot),0x00004000(u-boot_env),0x00200000(kernel),0x000a0000(splash)\; nand read.e 0x32000000 kernel\; bootm 0x32000000
GTA01Bv4 # saveenv

And that's it! Now you can use the newly created menu option "Boot from SDHC" to boot the internal kernel, using the root-filesystem on the microSDHC.

Автозагрузка с SDHC

Maybe you want to Boot automatically from SDHC: Set a new Bootmenu Entry for booting from NAND first

GTA01Bv4 # setenv menu_6 Boot from NAND: setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} \${mtdparts}\; nand read.e 0x32000000 kernel\; bootm 0x32000000
GTA01Bv4 # saveenv

then Power-off, and enter the Bootmenu to test the new Entry.If you can boot from NAND, shutdown, enter Boot menu, connect to bootloader and set the (auto)bootcmd for boot from SDHC:

GTA01Bv4 # setenv bootcmd setenv bootargs root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 rootdelay=10 console=tty0 neo1973-nand:0x00040000(u-boot),0x00004000(u-boot_env),0x00200000(kernel),0x000a0000(splash)\; nand read.e 0x32000000 kernel\; bootm 0x32000000 
GTA01Bv4 # saveenv

Now you boot from SDHC everytime you press the Power-Button or reboot and if you like to boot from NAND -just use the bootmenu.


Fixing udev automount

Udev automatically mounts the SD Card in /media/mmcblk0p1/ you can disable this with

echo /dev/mmcblk >> /etc/udev/mount.blacklist

Remarks on Kernel Parameters

Деталезация лога

Some people suggested adding:

loglevel=8

to the kernel command line. IF you also have "console=tty0" on your kernel commandline this makes the boot process extremely slow because the framebuffer (the neo display in text mode) has to print out tons of lines of debug messages like:

s3c2410-sdi s3c2410-sdi: ......
mmc0: ....
Personal tools

Эта страница рассказывает как загружаться FreeRunner с карты (micro-)SD вместо встроенной NAND флеш памяти. Карта SD разделяет шину с GPU, поэтому, возможно, не будет работать также хорошо, но имеется такая возможность.

WARNING: Загрузка с SDHC может иметь некоторые проблемы (смотри ниже).


Загрузка с SDHC / проблемы с suspend

Вначале предупреждение. Очень старый баг, который сущестрвует в ядре Linux, наличие тенденции к съедению таблицы разделов на картах SD большой емкости, когда система приостанавливает работу. Это карточка #1802. Посмотрите эту нить для прояснения ситуации с удалением таблицы разделов и, возможно, других проблем, связанных с использованием карт SD большой емкости. В качестве безопасности запишите параметры таблицы карты на бумагу чтобы в случае повреждения пересоздать как было(данные не портятся).

Как это работает

В Neo, u-boot выполняет роль загрузчика 'grub' как на PC. U-boot загружает образ ядра в память и передает параметры ядру. Параметры показывают где расположены остальные части системы и другие параметры ядра.

As the kernel boots, it initializes the hardware and then mounts the root filesystem. The kernel then runs "/sbin/init", which handles the rest of the boot-up sequence (such as displaying the splash screen and progress bar).

This sequence is the same whether the device is booting from built-in Flash or from the SD card. The differences are how the kernel is loaded, and which device is mounted as the root filesystem.

The following sections provide additional details.

Вход в меню

U-boot меню определены переменными с именами "menu_X" (где X является числом). Значение переменных -строка "<метка>:<команды>", где <метка> это текст который показан на экране, а <команды> из списка команд u-boot (разделены символом ';' ) для выполнения когда данное меню будет выделено. When entering a string of commands, the ';' and '$' characters must be backslash-escaped ("\;" and "\$").

Загрузка ядра

A pair of u-boot commands must be used to load the kernel from SD. First is "mmcinit", which will cause u-boot to detect the card. Next is a command to load a file into memory - either "fatload" or "ext2load" depending on whether the kernel is on a FAT filesytem or an ext2/ext3 filesystem.

The command syntax is:

fatload mmc 1:<p> 0x32000000 <filepath>
ext2load mmc 1:<p> 0x32000000 <filepath>

where <p> is the partition number, and <filepath> is the path to the file that is to be loaded.

NOTE: The "ext2load" command is broken on u-boot binary earlier than "20080723", including the one shipped with the first batch of FreeRunners, are affected by bug #799. If you update your U-Boot and kernel packages you can use direct ext2 / 3 boot all in one partition.


WARNING: Be careful when updating u-boot on a Neo1973 as there is a risk of bricking the device (unless you have a debug board). This is not an issue for the FreeRunner as it has a protected copy of u-boot in the NOR flash


NOTE: U-Boot supports SDHC protocol on the FreeRunner only: on the Neo1973, u-boot is unable to access SDHC cards (4G or larger). The kernel does have SDHC support on Neo1973, so it is possible to have the root filesystem on SDHC and the kernel on NAND flash to work around it.


Параметры корневой файловой системы

The contents of the "bootargs" environment variable are passed to the kernel. Bootargs is a space-delimited list of "name=value" definitions. The items relevant to SD-booting are "root", "rootfstype", and "rootdelay".

For example, the following parameters would tell the kernel to mount the third partition of the SD-card as an ext3 filesystem:

 root=/dev/mmcblk0p3 rootfstype=ext3 rootdelay=5 

The "rootdelay" parameter allows time for the card to be properly initialized before it is accessed.

Note that the kernel must have built-in support (i.e. not a module) for the filesystem specified in "rootfstype". The default Openmoko kernel configs as of 2008-07-17 have built-in support for both ext2 and ext3. You can check the available filesystems with the Linux command

less /proc/filesystems

It is not possible to use VFAT for the root filesystem.

ext2 в сравнении ext3

Opinion is divided on whether it is better to use ext2 or ext3 for the root filesystem. Ext3 in general is a superior choice, because it is a journalled filesystem and so does not require a long 'fsck' (file system check) after an unclean shutdown. However, if used on a flash device that does not support wear-leveling then ext3 may cause premature wear on the blocks of the card where the journal is stored. SD cards are supposed to support wear leveling, but this can not be guaranteed for all vendors.

Получение tar-архива корневой файловой системы

Существует два пути получения образа корневой ФС в tar-архиве. Вы можете создать его сами с помощью OpenEmbedded дистрибутива. Или загрузить его с openmoko buildhost.

Вариант 1: Скачать rootfs/kernel tar с Openmoko

Выберите rootfs/kernel комбинацию из Последних Образов.

Вариант 2: Создание tarfile дистрибутива с помощью OpenEmbedded

Другая возможность получить tar архив вашей корневой файловой системы состоит в том, чтобы создать его самостоятельно с помощью среды OpenEmbedded.

В случае с OM-2007.2 вам потребуется добавить "tar" к типам образов в local.conf:

IMAGE_FSTYPES = "jffs2 tar"

После чего создать новый образ так:

bitbake openmoko-devel-image

или, если используется MokoMakefile:

make openmoko-devel-image

Когда процесс завершен, будет создан файл Openmoko-....tar, который и будет вашим только что созданным архивом корневой файловой системы.

Вариант 3 : Преобразование образа jff2 в tar архив

Посмотрите Userspace root image для более детального описания того, как получить доступ к содержимому образа jffs2.

Подготовка SD карты

Разделы на SD карте

u-boot pre-2008-07-23 может грузить систему только с файловой системой FAT; если вы обновили u-boot, вы можеет грузиться с FAT или ext2. Этот пример показывает примерное использование утилиты fdisk для создания разделов на карте. Feel free to use the partitioning utility of your liking for this task.

fdisk /dev/mmcblk0

Примечание: The device file might differ on your system. If you are not sure about it, you may check your kernel message log by calling dmesg to find the correct device.

мы создадим раздел 8 мегабайт для ядра и остальнео пространство для всего остального.

  Command (m for help): d
  Selected partition 1
  Command (m for help): n
  Command action
     e   extended
     p   primary partition (1-4)
  p
  Partition number (1-4): 1
  First cylinder (1-983, default 1):
  Using default value 1
  Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-983, default 983): +8M
  Command (m for help): n
  Command action
     e   extended
     p   primary partition (1-4)
  p
  Partition number (1-4): 2
  First cylinder (18-983, default 18):
  Using default value 18
  Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (18-983, default 983):
  Using default value 983
  Command (m for help): w
  The partition table has been altered!
  Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
  Syncing disks.

Should probably need to change type of first partition to FAT 16 too ?

if it exits with something like

  Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table
  fdisk: WARNING: rereading partition table failed, kernel still uses old table:   Device or resource busy

do

  umount /dev/mmcblk0p1

on another shell and try again.

Форматирование SD карты

Создаем на первом разделе FAT файловую систему:

mkfs.vfat /dev/mmcblk0p1
NOTE: if you do not have mkfs.vfat you must find and install the "dosfstools" package. This package does not seem to be in the official feeds, but an unofficial build may be downloaded from http://members.shaw.ca/mmontour/neo/dosfstools_2.11-r0_armv4t.ipk



Вторую часть карты делаем как ext3 (для работы с ext2 надо создать ядро с корректной конфигурацией):

mkfs.ext3 /dev/mmcblk0p2

Перенос на карту SD

Ваша карточка готова к загрузки на нее ядра и файловой системы.

Mount the second partition of your SD card somewhere and put the image on it:

mount /dev/mmcblk0p2 /mnt/moko
tar -C /mnt/moko/ -xzvf openmoko-devel-image-fic-gta01-20070313022035.rootfs.tar.gz

Note: As always in this guide the device name as well as the rootfs name needs to be adjusted to your device and filename structure

Note: There's a nice gotcha to take care about if you use your host OS automount. Some hosts mount these removable devices with "nodev" option by default for security. If the image you are unpacking has a populated /dev directory, the nodes will fail to create as devices then. If automounting the SD on your host, confirm there are no unexpected mount options by using "mount" command alone to list the mounts.

The next step is to mount the first partition of the sd card and install the kernel on it.

mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt/mokokernel
cp uImage-fic-gta01-latest.bin /mnt/mokokernel/uImage.bin

Make sure your kernel is called uImage.bin. If the u-boot doesn't find the kernel image during boot, log into the bootloader with cu, mount the partition with mmcinit and check the presence and the name of the kernel image with fatls mmc 1:1 for FAT filesystem or ext2ls mmc 1:1 for ext2 filesystem.

Unmount both the rootfs partition and the kernel partition and make sure all remaining buffers are written to it:

umount /mnt/moko
umount /mnt/mokokernel
sync

Add uboot boot entry

Depending on the revision of the phone and the partition type (ext2/ext3) you are using, it might be necessary to add an entry to the bootmenu to be able to boot the system off your SD card. If you are using a FreeRunner and have created an FAT kernel/ext2 rootfs partition you should be able to boot from the card right out of the box, because a boot menu entry for this should already exist in the NOR/NAND boot menu. In any other case you should at least make sure the needed entry exists in your menu before proceeding. You will need to enter the uboot shell of the NAND boot menu for this. A description on how to connect to the uboot loader shell can be found in this article: Uboot#Bootloader_prompt. Details on howto get into the NAND boot menu can be found here.

After you read these two references you should be connected to your NAND uboot shell right now. The first thing to do is to set the boot menu timeout to a really high value. Unfortunately if you don't do this, the boot loader will continue booting after the default timeout (60 seconds) even if you are connected to the uboot shell. Just enter the following command to the menu prompt:

setenv boot_menu_timeout 99999

This will set the timeout to 99999 seconds which should definitely enough time for us finish whatever work we want accomplish in the boot loader shell.

Now we will make sure a appropriate menu item for booting from sd exists, or create it otherwise. You can print the defined boot loader environment by issuing the command:

printenv

If it shows a line beginning with menu_ followed by the commands which are just to follow in this guide, you do not need to create a new menu entry. In any other case please proceed with the following.

Please make sure you are using the correct configuration based on the decisions you made earlier. For more information on the uboot prompt, see

help 
help <command>

and Bootloader and Bootloader commands.

NOTE: The backslashes (\) are important for uboot to set the command as new environment variable (menu_9) instead of just executing them as soon as enter is pressed.


NOTE: Copy and paste may not work depending on your terminal emulator. Commi just works or you can use neocon terminal emulator and add a per-character delay. Otherwise, you will have to type in the commandline manually.


It is important to distinguish between FAT or ext2 kernel partitions and ext2 or ext3 root partitions at this point.

Please watch partition numbers in the following commands. In particular, you may need to change root=/dev/mmcblk0p# and fatload mmc # or ext2load mmc # depending on which partition number your root and kernel, respectively, are located. Number starts from unity.

Boot entry for FAT kernel+ext3 rootfs partitions:

setenv menu_9 Boot from microSD (FAT+ext3): setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext3 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} ro\; mmcinit\; fatload mmc 1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

Boot entry for FAT kernel+ext2 rootfs partitions:

setenv menu_9 Boot from microSD (FAT+ext2): setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext2 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} ro\; mmcinit\; fatload mmc 1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

or : with additional 'init=/sbin/init' kernel parameter (may be needed for some images) :

setenv menu_9 Boot 200808 from microSD (FAT+ext2): setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext2 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} init=/sbin/init ro\; mmcinit\; fatload mmc 1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

Boot entry for ext2 kernel+ext2 rootfs partitions: (requires newer u-boot)

setenv menu_2 Boot from microSD part2 (ext2+ext2): setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext2 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} ro\; mmcinit\; ext2load mmc 1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

Boot entry for kernel and rootfs on same ext2 partition (tested with Qtopia/requires newer u-boot)

setenv menu_3 QTopia: setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} rootfstype=ext2 root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 rootdelay=5 \${mtdparts} ro\; mmcinit\; ext2load mmc 1:1 0x32000000 \${sd_image_name}\; bootm 0x32000000

You are nearly done. Just issue a

printenv

and verify that your newly created entry is correctly displayed (This time the backslashes are not displayed anyone).

If everything looks fine enter

saveenv

into the prompt and press enter. The new configuration should now be saved to the NAND.

Shutdown your neo with the following command:

neo1973 power-off

After you restarted the Neo and got back to the NAND boot menu you should be able to select your newly created menu entry and successfully boot into the rootfs from your SD card.


See also Moving current system from flash to SD which shows how to move the running system currently running in flash to an SD card, in order to keep a backup system on SD on which to boot from.


Приложение

Загрузка с SDHC

NOTE: the following text was written for the Neo1973. SDHC and SD should both work in a FreeRunner if you have u-boot from 2008-07-23 or later.


As SDHC is not supported in older u-boot versions you can't use the Booting from SD guide. But there's a kind of workaround that is a good option to have at least your rootfs on the microSDHC:

First you can follow Step 1 to get an kernel-image with mmc- and ext2-support. But instead of copying the image to the rootfs you will have to flash it to the Neo's internal NAND-Flash (using Dfu-util). Now you can continue with Step 2 (like mentioned before you do not have to copy your uImage to the rootfs) and follow the instructions to Step 3. Instead of the setenv commands in Step 3 you have to enter the following:

GTA01Bv4 # setenv menu_5 Boot from SDHC: setenv  bootargs root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 console=tty0 rootdelay=5 neo1973-nand:0x00040000(u-boot),0x00004000(u-boot_env),0x00200000(kernel),0x000a0000(splash)\; nand read.e 0x32000000 kernel\; bootm 0x32000000
GTA01Bv4 # saveenv

And that's it! Now you can use the newly created menu option "Boot from SDHC" to boot the internal kernel, using the root-filesystem on the microSDHC.

Автозагрузка с SDHC

Maybe you want to Boot automatically from SDHC: Set a new Bootmenu Entry for booting from NAND first

GTA01Bv4 # setenv menu_6 Boot from NAND: setenv bootargs \${bootargs_base} \${mtdparts}\; nand read.e 0x32000000 kernel\; bootm 0x32000000
GTA01Bv4 # saveenv

then Power-off, and enter the Bootmenu to test the new Entry.If you can boot from NAND, shutdown, enter Boot menu, connect to bootloader and set the (auto)bootcmd for boot from SDHC:

GTA01Bv4 # setenv bootcmd setenv bootargs root=/dev/mmcblk0p1 rootdelay=10 console=tty0 neo1973-nand:0x00040000(u-boot),0x00004000(u-boot_env),0x00200000(kernel),0x000a0000(splash)\; nand read.e 0x32000000 kernel\; bootm 0x32000000 
GTA01Bv4 # saveenv

Now you boot from SDHC everytime you press the Power-Button or reboot and if you like to boot from NAND -just use the bootmenu.


Fixing udev automount

Udev automatically mounts the SD Card in /media/mmcblk0p1/ you can disable this with

echo /dev/mmcblk >> /etc/udev/mount.blacklist

Remarks on Kernel Parameters

Деталезация лога

Some people suggested adding:

loglevel=8

to the kernel command line. IF you also have "console=tty0" on your kernel commandline this makes the boot process extremely slow because the framebuffer (the neo display in text mode) has to print out tons of lines of debug messages like:

s3c2410-sdi s3c2410-sdi: ......
mmc0: ....